Economic trends

Updated: 9 June 2023

Next update: 8 September 2023

Projected change to GDP for mainland Norway
Projected change to GDP for mainland Norway
2022 - 2023
Economic trends. Forecasts
Economic trends. Forecasts1 2
Gross domestic product1.
GDP Mainland Norway1.
Employed persons1.
Unemployment rate (level)
Wages per standard man-year5.
Consumer price index (CPI)
Housing prices-1.4-
Money market rate (level)
Import-weighted NOK exchange rate (44 countries)
1Forecasts for current and future years.
2Percentage change from previous year unless otherwise noted.
Explanation of symbols

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

  • Main economic indicators. Accounts and forecasts
    Main economic indicators. Accounts and forecasts1 2
    Demand and output
    Consumption in households etc2.
    General government consumption2.
    Gross fixed investment-0.3-
    Extraction and transport via pipelines-1.8-12.2-16.0-5.40.714.3-3.3-2.1-
    Gross fixed investment mainland Norway0.4-
    General government4.
    Demand from Mainland Norway3
    Exports of traditional goods4.26.5-
    Exports of crude oil and natural gas3.
    Imports of traditional goods2.12.7-
    Gross domestic product2.
    GDP Mainland Norway2.
    GDP Manufacturing2.7-4.4-4.1-
    GDP in current prices (NOK billion)3 1623 1303 1163 3233 5773 5973 4624 2125 5714 9645 2075 3725 444
    Labour market
    Total hours worked, Mainland Norway1.
    Employed persons1.
    Labor force4
    Participation rate (level)4 71.771.971.370.671.171.471.372.172.672.372.172.172.2
    Unemployment rate (level)4
    Prices and wages
    Wages per standard man-year3.
    Consumer price index (CPI)
    Export prices, traditional goods2.
    Import prices, traditional goods4.
    Housing prices2.
    Income, interest rates and excange rate
    Household real income2.45.3-
    Household saving ratio (level)
    Money market rate (level)
    Lending rate, credit loans (level)6
    Real after-tax lending rate, banks (level)0.3-0.2-0.6-0.5-
    Import-weighted NOK exchange rate (44 countries)7 5.310.51.8-
    NOK per euro (level)8.358.959.299.339.609.8510.7210.1610.1011.6211.8811.8811.88
    Current account
    Current balance (NOK billion)8 374282163210320136385741 691730776766667
    Current account (per cent of GDP)
    International indicators
    Exports markets indicator4.
    Consumer price index, euro-area0.
    Money market rate, euro (level)0.20.0-0.3-0.3-0.3-0.4-0.4-
    Crude oil price USD (level)9 100534555726443719978727068
    Crude oil price NOK (level)9 627431379452583564407609951845805775752
    1Percentage change from previous year unless otherwise noted.
    2Some time series may have been revised after the publication of the Economic Trends.
    3Consumption in households and non-profit organizations + general government consumption + gross fixed capital formation in mainland Norway.
    4Labour force survey: Break adjusted figures.
    5CPI adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products.
    6Yearly average. Credit lines, secured on dwellings.
    7Increasing index implies depreciation.
    8Current account not adjusted for saving in pension funds.
    9Average spot price Brent Blend.
    Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

Economic forecasting is an important planning tool for individuals, businesses and the authorities. Independent forecasts with free universal access are beneficial to society, and form part of Statistics Norway’s social mission to produce macroeconomic forecasting.

Economic forecasting

Economic forecasting is an important planning tool for individuals, businesses and the authorities. Independent forecasts with free universal access are beneficial to society, and form part of Statistics Norway’s social mission to produce macroeconomic forecasting.


The term ‘projection’ is used in relation to any forward-looking calculation, including improbable scenarios, while a ‘forecast’ is a prediction of the future condition of the economy that is considered most likely at the time the forecast is made.
The terms used in the economic trend publications are largely based on the terms in the national accounts, see

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Name: Economic trends
Topic: National accounts and business cycles

8 September 2023
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It is part of Statistics Norway’s remit to produce forecasts with free universal access, and the guidelines for research and analysis in Statistics Norway (Retningslinjer for forsknings- og analysevirksomheten i SSB - in Norwegian only) from the Ministry of Finance stipulate that forecasting and the monitoring of economic cycles are an important part of Statistics Norway’s work, see also the article on why Statistics Norway produces forecasts for economic trends in the Norwegian economy (Hvorfor lager SSB prognoser for utviklingen i norsk økonomi? - in Norwegian only).

Statistics Norway has been publishing macroeconomic forecasts for more than 30 years. The Economic trends articles describe the economic situation in Norway and abroad and give estimates of the main economic variables for the current year and the three subsequent years.

The forecasts are mainly prepared by researchers in the research department. There is a strong focus on transparency in relation to the assumptions underlying the forecasts, which are produced using the empirical macroeconomic model KVARTS. This model is based on national accounts data and financial behaviour, and is updated with new data on an ongoing basis. Using such a macroeconomic model ensures that the forecasts for the many variables are consistent with each other and with economic theory. Sensitivity analyses describing how changing assumptions affect the forecasts are often performed for the economic trend articles. Forecasting therefore also helps to shed light on the functioning of the economy.

Forecasting is an important planning tool (see also fact box). Households’ choices will often be based on expectations of developments in macroeconomic conditions such as interest rates, wages, house prices and unemployment. For example, a household that is considering buying a house would find it relevant to calculate the burden that interest charges is likely to represent.

Companies will not only be interested in general macroeconomic developments, but in price and cost trends and demand. The picture that companies have of the market situation dictates whether they recruit more workers or invest in new production equipment.

When negotiating wages, employers and trade unions are interested in inflation rates and unemployment levels.

The ongoing monitoring of economic cycles is necessary for ensuring that other parts of Statistics Norway’s social mission are also carried out. The Government uses KVARTS in its work on the national budget, and the Ministry of Finance receives an updated model and forecasts after each economic trends publication. The Ministry of Finance then compiles its own forecasts for the Norwegian economy.

In the 1990s, Statistics Norway signed an agreement with the Storting’s Finance Committee and the Ministry of Finance to carry out macroeconomic calculations for an alternative national budget for the parties in parliament, see for example Statistics Norway’s calculations of the Frp party’s national budget proposal for 2013 (SSBs beregninger av Frps forslag til statsbudsjett for 2013 - in Norwegian only).

Statistics Norway also assists the Norwegian Technical Calculation Committee for Wage Settlements in producing estimates of the annual growth in the consumer price index. In addition, Statistics Norway takes on assignments from ministries and prepares Official Norwegian Reports (Norges offentlige utredninger, or NOUs) with analyses of the Norwegian economy. All these elements of the social mission require Statistics Norway to stay abreast of the trajectory of the Norwegian economy.

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The projections are not subject to any particular statutory basis.

There are no EU regulations in this field.

Models are simplifications of reality, and they often only capture a few key mechanisms. This also applies to the macroeconomic model KVARTS that is used in the work on economic trends. Each year, the Norwegian publication on the economic outlook (Økonomisk utsyn) reviews the accuracy of the forecasts for the previous year. In addition, an analysis is made of the uncertainty in the estimates for mainland GDP, the consumer price index and the unemployment rate measured by the Labour Force Survey, based on the forecasts that Statistics Norway has published since 1991.

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